Chapter Four

A Summary Of Social Characteristics In Animals

Before moving on to consider human individuality, the argument has reached a point at which it is possible to sum up the evidence that has been presented for a relationship between emerging consciousness and the progressive elaboration of social behaviours. This is displayed in Table Three. Where the answer in a given cell is self-evident, a simple 'Yes' or 'No' is entered, and in a few cases 'N/A'; where the evidence is less clear or a 'Yes/No' answer might be contentious, a reference is given. The comparable level of consciousness, entered in column 1 using the scale presented in this book, is given only as an extremely approximate guide.

If a line is imagined running from the top left-hand corner of the table to the bottom right-hand corner, then, approximately speaking species don't have a given level of consciousness if they fall mostly to the left of the line, and do have it if they fall mostly to the right of the line.

Click here to see the Table on one page.


Table Three: A Cognitive Map Of Social Behaviours

Level of Consciousness
Trait
Chondrich-
thians (shark)
Amphibian (frog, salaman-
der)
Sauropsid (snake, lizard)
Sauropsid (bird)
Mammal (rodent)
Primate (Great Ape)
Homo Sapiens
Categorizing Responsive-
ness
Grouping
During
mating1
Yes8
During mating19
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Territoriality
Yes2
Yes9
Rare
Yes
Yes51
Yes
Yes
Dominance hierarchies
Yes3
Yes10
Yes21
Yes
Yes51
Yes63
Yes
Group
predation
Yes4
N/A
No
Yes
N/A
Yes
Yes
Courtship
Yes6
Yes13
Yes24
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Play
Reported
No
Repor-
ted
25
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Social Responsive-
ness
Parental care
No
Moderate12
Some-
times26
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Deception
No
Yes15
Some-
times
Yes41
Yes52
Yes
Yes
Gestural communica-
tion
No
No
Yes32
Yes42
Yes53
Yes
Yes
Vocalization
No
Yes18
Yes30
Yes43
Yes53
Yes
Yes
Social Conscious-
ness
Mutual grooming
No
No
Marginal31
Yes
Yes56
Yes
Yes
Intentionality
No
No
No
Yes45
Yes54
Yes
Yes
Altruism
No
No
No
Yes46
Yes55
Yes70
Yes
Food-
sharing
No
No
No
Yes48
Moder-
ate57
Yes74
Yes
Division of labour
No
No
No
Yes48
Marginal
Yes
Yes
Self Aware-
ness
Laughter
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Dance
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Culture
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Song
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Ritual
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Cultural trans-
mission
No
No
No
Occa-
sional50
Moder-
ate58
Yes80
Yes
Language
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Trade
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Gossip
No
No
No
No
No
Marginal
Yes

 

Footnotes (References):

1. Whitney, Pratt and Carrier (2004)

2. Pratt and Carrier (2001)

3. Pratt and Carrier (2001)

4. Martin, Hammerschlag, Collier and Fallows (2005)

6. Sims, Southall, Quayle and Fox (2000)

8. Mathis. Schmidt and Medley (2000)

9. Mathis. Schmidt and Medley (2000)

10. Boice and Witter (1969)

12. Crump (1996)

13. Jaeger, Gillette and Cooper (2002)

15. Bee, Perrill and Owen (2000)

18. Kanamadi, Schneider, Hiremath and Jirankali (1993)

19. Rivas and Burghardt (2005)

21. Davis (2007)

24. Carpenter (1977)

25. Burghardt (2002)

26. Hartdegen, Russell, Young and Reams (2001)

30. Hartdegen, Russell, Young and Reams (2001)

31. Greenberg (2003)

32. Martins (1994)

41. Clayton, Dally, Gilbert and Dickinson (2005)

42. Rogers and Kaplan (2000)

43. Robinson (1990)

45. Prior, Schwartz and Güntürkün (2008)

46. Yarmoosh (2008)

48. Adeyemo and Ayodele (2005)

49. Bartlett, Mock and Schwagmeyer (2005)

50. Bluff, Weir, Rutz, Wimpenny and Kacelnik (2007)

51. Lacey and Wieczorek (2001)

52. Steele, Halkin, Smallwood, McKenna, Mitsopoulos and Beam (2008)

53. Douvris (2001)

54. Hare and Atkins (2001)

55. Hare and Murie (1996)

56. Hillegass, Waterman and Roth (2008)

57. Spritzer and Brazeau (2003)

58. Galef (1996)

63. Seyfarth and Cheney (2003)

70. Bickerton (2000)

74. De Waal (1989)

80. Whitten and Boesche (1999) and Van Schaik (2006)

 

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